A dental extraction (also referred to as exodontia) is the removal of a tooth from the mouth. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, including tooth decay that has destroyed enough tooth structure to prevent restoration. Extractions of impacted or problematic wisdom teeth are routinely performed, as are extractions of some permanent teeth to make space for orthodontic treatment. Usually the dentist will require an xray to view the roots of the tooth to be extracted.
Other dental surgeries include gum grafting, frenectomy (incision of the midline tissue attachment to the lip), apicoectomy (removal to the root tip of a failing root canal treated tooth), crown lenghtening (removal of bone around a tooth to facilitate better success of crowning), and gum recontouring.